Учебно-методическое пособие для обучающихся 1 курса всех форм обучения для всех направлений подготовки бакалавриата


My car is in the garage. Мой автомобиль



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УМП для обучающихся 1 курса всех направлений подготовки ЗФО

My car is in the garage. Мой автомобиль стоит в гараже.

He is her son. Он ее сын.

Если притяжательное местоимение и подлежащее подразумевают одно и то же лицо, то притяжательное местоимение имеет значение «свой».

He gave me his address. Он дал мне свой адрес.

Если существительному предшествуют другие определения, то притяжательное местоимение, как всякий определитель, ставится перед ними:



His elder brother lives in Moscow. Его старший брат живет в Москве.

Обратите внимание на то, что в русском языке местоимения его и их употребляются как в качестве личных, так и притяжательных местоимений. Личным местоимениям его и их, отвечающим на вопрос кого? что? соответствуют личные местоимения him и them, а притяжательным местоимениям его и их, отвечающим на вопрос чей? соответствуют притяжательные местоимения his и their:

Я видел (кого?) его (личное местоимение). I saw him.

Это (чьи?) его часы (притяжательное местоимение). This is his watch.

Я видел (кого?) их (личное местоимение). I saw them.

Это (чей?) их дом (притяжательное местоимение). This is their house.

Притяжательные местоимения часто используются перед словами, обозначающими части тела, одежду, предметы и т.д., принадлежащие человеку. В этом случае они не переводятся на русский язык.

He always puts his hands into his pockets. Он всегда держит руки в карманах.


Личные местоимения в именительном и объектном падежах и притяжательные местоимения представлены в следующей таблице:





Личные

Притяжательные




Именительный падеж

Объектный падеж

чей? чья? чье? чьи?

ед.ч.

1л. I

me

my

2л. you

you

your

3л. he

him

his

3л. she

her

her

3л. it

it

its

мн.ч.

1л. we

us

our

2л. you

you

your

3л. they

them

their

7. Замените выделенные слова соответствующими местоимениями


  1. My father and mother are doctors. 2. This flower is very beautiful. 3. The teacher is helping his students to translate the article. 4. Mother will send John to buy the tickets. 5. The man gave the books to the girl. 6. My friend is writing a letter to his sister. 7. I love my father and mother. 8. The University library is big. 9. My brother’s friends are students. 10. My brother’s friends are in Italy now.


8. Заполните пропуски в предложениях местоимениями


  1. Do you know this girl? What is … name?

  2. If you cannot do this work, I can help … .

  3. He is busy with his lessons. Don’t speak to … now.

  4. Look at your hands! … are dirty (грязные).

  5. Where is his car? … is in the garage.

  6. This town is very green because there are a lot of trees in … streets.

  7. We live in a good flat. … flat is on the second floor.

  8. They have two children. … children go to school.

  9. Her parents are far away now. She calls … every day.

  10. Can you tell … her telephone number? We don’t remember it.


Тест для самоконтроля
Замените выделенные слова соответствующими местоимениями:
1. My friend and I went to Spain last summer.

1. they 2. we 3. he

2. The book is very interesting.

1. she 2. he 3. it

3. I know this man very well.

1. his 2. him 3. he

4. I am going to visit my grandparents tomorrow.

1. them 2. us 3. their


Вместо пропусков вставьте необходимые по смыслу местоимения
5. We are students of the University. … University is in the centre of the city.

1. us 2. their 3. our

6. Where is my pen? I can’t see … .

1. her 2. it 3. its

7. The children live with … grandparents.

1. them 2. us 3. their

8. Nick has bought a new car. … colour is black.

1. it’s 2. its 3. her

9. We don’t know where the central library is. Can you tell … the way there?

1. us 2. our 3. them

10. My friends are in London now. I will call … in the evening.

1. them 2. him 3. their


Ключ к тесту для самоконтроля
1 – 2; 2 – 3; 3 – 2; 4 – 1; 5 – 3; 6 – 2; 7 – 3; 8 – 2; 9 – 1; 10 - 1

9. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи является слово, оформленное окончанием –s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. English schools close for two weeks for Easter.

2. What is the colour of your friend’s car?

3. British football supporters have a reputation for violence.

4. The students’ papers were on the teacher’s table.

5. My friend gets to the university by bus.

6. Young couples in England must have their parents’ consent to get married if they are under 18.

7. The candidate who wins the elections becomes the MP (member of parliament) in the House of Commons.
Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий

В следующей таблице представлены способы образования степеней сравнения прилагательных и наречий. Проанализируйте ее, рассмотрите примеры, данные ниже.







Прилагательные и наречия

Сравнительная степень

Превосходная степень

Односложные и некоторые двусложные (оканчивающиеся на

-y, -er, -ow, -le)



small

big


simple

noisy


smaller

bigger

simpler

noisier



the smallest

the biggest

the simplest

the noisiest



Двусложные и многосложные

comfortable

expensive



more comfortable

more expensive

the most comfortable

the most expensive

Исключения

good

well


better

the best

bad

badly


worse

the worst

little

less

the least

far

farther

further


the farthest

the furthest



old

older

elder


the oldest

the eldest


Примеры:


It is warmer today than it was yesterday. – Сегодня теплее, чем вчера.
This is the most famous lake in Scotland. – Это самое известное озеро в Шотландии.


  1. Переведите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения.

  1. London underground is the oldest in the world.

  2. The rivers in America are much longer than those in England.

  3. What is the name of the highest mountain in Asia?

  4. St. Petersburg is one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

  5. She has bought a watch in Switzerland as she thinks that Swiss watches are the most accurate in the world.

  6. This computer is not as expensive as yours.

  7. The new cinema in our district is much bigger than the old one.

  8. He was one of the most experienced workers at the factory.

  9. The more I lived in that city the more I liked it.


Unit 2
1. Ответьте на вопрос

What do you think British people are like?


2. Прочтите и переведите текст

Text 2

Typically British

Welcome to our guide to the UK. This is useful for anyone researching British culture, customs, manners, etiquette, values and wanting to understand the people better. You may be going to Britain on business, for a visit or even hosting British colleagues or clients in your own country. Remember this is only a very basic level introduction and is not meant to stereotype all Brits you may meet.

The British have been historically known for their stiff upper lip1. This attitude in the face of adversity or embarrassment lives on today.

As a nation, the Brits tend not to use superlatives and are not terribly animated when they speak. This does not mean that they do not have strong emotions; they just do not choose to put them on public display2. They are generally not very openly demonstrative, and, unless you know someone well, may not appreciate it if you put your arm around their shoulder. Kissing is most often reserved for family members in the privacy of home, rather than in public3. You'll see that the British prefer to maintain a few feet of distance between themselves and the person to whom they are speaking. If you have insulted someone, their facial expression may not change.

The British are very reserved and private people. Privacy is extremely important. The British will not necessarily give you a tour of their home and, in fact4, may keep most doors closed. They expect others to respect their privacy. This extends to not asking personal questions. The question, "Where are you from?" may be viewed as an attempt to "place" the person on the social or class scale. Even close friends do not ask pointedly personal questions, particularly pertaining to one's financial situation or relationships.

There is a proper way to act in most situations and the British are sticklers for adherence to protocol. The British are a bit more contained in their body language and hand gestures while speaking. They are generally more distant and reserved than North and South Americans and Southern Europeans, and may not initially appear to be as open or fiendly5. Friendships take longer to build; however, once established they tend to be deep and may last over time and distance.

Formerly a very homogenous society, since World War II, Britain has become increasingly diverse as it has accommodated large immigrant populations, particularly from its former colonies such as India, Pakistan and West Indies. The mixture of ethnic groups and cultures make it difficult to define "Britishness" nowadays and a debate rages within the nation as to what now really constitutes being a Briton.

Notes

1 stiff upper lip не терять мужества, не падать духом

2 to put them on public display выставлять их напоказ

3 rather than in public а не на публике

4 in fact фактически

5 and may not initially appear и могут на первый взгляд показаться не

to be as open or friendly очень открытыми и дружелюбными
Words

research исследовать, изучать

custom обычай

value ценность

host хозяин; принимать гостей

level уровень

attitude отношение

adversity напасти; несчастья; превратности судьбы

superlative превосходная степень

animated оживленный, живой

appreciate ценить, быть признательным

shoulder плечо

privacy уединение; уединенность

insult оскорблять; обижать

expression выражение

reserved скрытный; сдержанный; необщительный

expect ожидать, рассчитывать

respect уважать

attempt попытка

pointedly явно, очевидно


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