Учебно-методическое пособие для обучающихся 1 курса всех форм обучения для всех направлений подготовки бакалавриата

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УМП для обучающихся 1 курса всех направлений подготовки ЗФО

Unit I
1. Ответьте на вопросы

1. What was the first kind of writing?

2. How many signs are there in your writing system?

3. Where does your writing system come from?

2. Просмотрите текст и определите его основную идею, выбрав из предложенных вариантов

The text is about ...

1. the Greek and English alphabets.

2. the difference between hieroglyphs and alphabets.

3. the Phoenician Empire.

4. where many countries got their alphabets from.

Прочтите и переведите следующий текст
Text 1

The Alphabet

For many thousands of years, when people wanted to write something they had to draw pictures. In Egypt and other Mediterranean countries they were called hieroglyphs. Then, from about 2,500 BC1, a new system of writing began – the alphabet.

Nowadays there are seven major alphabets but they all have one thing in common2: they consist of a fixed set of written signs. Each sign is used to show a particular sound. By putting different signs together in different ways all the words in a language can be formed.

In some languages the letters nearly always mean exactly the same sounds. It is very easy to read such languages and make the correct sounds. In others, such as English, some letters or groups of letters do not always make the same sound – although they should! These languages are not so easy to read.

We do not know who made the first alphabet. We do know, however, that the most important of them was the Phoenician3 alphabet. The Greeks used this alphabet to help form theirs. The Romans used it for Latin, and before long4 it had spread throughout Europe. It also spread to the east and became, though greatly changed, the Indian, Arabic and Hebrew5 alphabets.

The Phoenicians came from the part of the Mediterranean that is now called the Lebanon6. They were merchants and builders. They did not have an empire the way the Romans had one, but they spread throughout the Mediterranean building cities along the coast of North Africa and elsewhere.

It is not difficult to understand how the Phoenician alphabet spread. It is very useful for keeping business records7 and the Phoenician merchants took it with them wherever they went. Other peoples, seeing how useful it was, began to use it, making changes to meet the needs8 of their own languages.

Most Europeans today believe that their own alphabet comes from the Greek alphabet. They talk about the Greek letters alpha, beta, delta, gamma, etc., and how these became in turn A, B, D, G. They do not know that these Greek letters in turn9 come from the Phoenician alphabet – one of the most important inventions in the history of human knowledge.


1 BC до нашей эры

2 they all have one thing in common но все их объединяет одно

3 Phoenician финикийский

4 before long вскоре

5 Hebrew древнееврейский, иудейский

6 Lebanon Ливан

7 for keeping business records для хранения деловой документации

8 to meet the needs для удовлетворения потребностей

9 in turn в свою очередь

major основной

sign знак

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