Сборник научных трудов российских ученых, принявших участие в работе



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Сборник научных трудов российских ученых, участвующих в Международной научной конференции
Актуальные аспекты современной психофизиологии-IX»
2017

87
ПСИХОФИЗИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПОВЫШЕНИЯ ЗРИТЕЛЬНОЙ
РАБОТОСПОСОБНОСТИ ПРИ ЗРИТЕЛЬНОМ УТОМЛЕНИИ У ПОЛЬЗОВАТЕЛЕЙ ПК

Халфина Р.Р.
Россия, г. Уфа,
ФГБОУ ВПО Башкирский государственный университет
The scale of the use of computer technology in the most diverse areas of modern human activity is difficult to assess, they are simply huge and, according to a number of authors, the role of personal computers (PCs) will increase more and more, and the load on the visual analyzer also increases. Specificity of banking work is associated with the high activity of cognitive mental processes, is accompanied by high psychoemotional stress and represents a constant, intense and prolonged mental labor, the price of error can be very high.
Thus, increasing the visual performance of bank employees is an urgent task. The aim of the study was to study the psychophysiological aspects of correcting the visual performance of users of personal computers.
The article presents data on visual performance of bank employees before and after rehabilitation with the help of the computer program "Landolt". Conducted measures of functional correction of sight showed a selective effect on different localization and mechanisms of visual fatigue. The researchers of the bank of both sexes (n = 195), who had complaints about visual discomfort (among them men n = 12, average age -
32 years, women n = 26, average age - 43 years) participated in the studies. Subjects were divided into control and experimental groups, in each group the subjects were divided into groups GA - group with mild visual fatigue, GB - group with moderate visual fatigue, HS - group with strongly expressed fatigue. As a means of enhancing visual performance, we used audiovisual stimulation and the course of ophthalmic training and massage. In the control group, a course of industrial gymnastics with the inclusion of oculomotor exercises was used as remedial measures. The psychophysiological processes of selective visual attention of computer users in the development of visual and mental fatigue and recovery have shown that in the initial state, before the application of functional vision correction, the reduced values of the basic indicators of selective visual attention - the volume, speed and efficiency of the analysis of visual information relative to the indices obtained by others authors by a similar method. A more detailed examination of the data showed that in the initial state of our observable users of computers, the efficiency of the analysis of visual information was reduced both due to mistakes of the first kind (mistakenly marked signs) and errors of the second kind (missed signs). This circumstance is a fundamentally important psychophysiological fact, since it indicates the inclusion in the process of mental and visual fatigue of various mechanisms that ensure selective attention. In the group of persons with marked signs of asthenopia, the effectiveness of information analysis was significantly lower than in those with less pronounced visual fatigue. The analysis of the received psychophysiological data at users of the personal computer on sexual dimorphism has shown higher efficiency of processing of the visual information at users of the personal computer-men.
Conducted measures of functional correction of sight showed a selective effect on different localization and mechanisms of visual fatigue. Physical methods of rehabilitation, including ophthalmotrening with the use of oculomotor exercises, exercises for swinging the accommodative apparatus, as well as methods of ophthalmic relaxation combined with neck and collar massage, facial expression and paraorbital zones significantly increased the efficiency of the analysis of visual information. Also, a significant but more significant increase in the efficiency of information analysis occurred after audiovisual stimulation, and due to the reduction of first-order errors. We explain this dynamics of the investigated parameters of selective visual attention in computer users by increasing the inverse afferentation from the oculomotor and intraocular muscles to the activating system of the brain in the first case. With ABC, a direct activation of the ascending brain activating system occurs, which causes an increase in the efficiency of analyzing the information. Such interpretation of the data obtained by us fully fits into the modern psychophysiological concept of selective visual attention, the neuronal relationships in the system are the non-specific nuclei of the thalamus-the reticular formation-the visual cortex of the brain. Специфика выполнения служебных обязанностей банковских служащих является обработки большого количества зрительной информации, соответственно, это предъявляет повышенные требования к психофизиологическим механизмам, обеспечивающим селективное (избирательное)


Сборник научных трудов российских ученых, участвующих в Международной научной конференции
Актуальные аспекты современной психофизиологии-IX»
2017

88 зрительное внимание. Использование подходов когнитивной психологии в исследовании поведенческой астенопии, возникающей при перенапряжении высших зрительных функций, является актуальным при изучении психофизиологических механизмов зрительного и умственного утомления у банковских служащих.


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