ФГОУ ВПО «Кемеровский государственный сельскохозяйственный институт», г. Кемерово
В нынешних условиях кризис охватил многих, в том числе и молодежь, особенно студентов. Эта проблема довольно актуальна, и целью данной статьи является выяснить, какие проблемы волнуют студентов в этот период. Проблема кризиса охватывает молодежь на всех этапах обучения. Абитуриенты сталкиваются с трудностями при поступлении в ВУЗ, студенты 1-5 курсов – с проблемой платы за обучение и, наконец, выпускники испытывают трудности в поисках работы. Задачей данной статьи - разобраться подробнее в этих проблемах на всех этих трех этапах.
Nowadays the crisis has embraced many people, including young people and students as well. I suppose, this problem is rather actual, and the aim of my article is to clear up what problems students are concerned about during this period. As it turned out this problem has embraced young people at all stages. School-leavers face problems entering a higher school, students of the 1-5 years have problems with paying for education, and, finally, graduates have difficulties with searching for work. My task is to examine these problems in detail at all the three stages.
The undoubted advantage of the new generation is focusing on education – this is a global trend: many young people in the modern world are better educated than their parents. In March 2009 a public opinion poll of young people aged 16-26 took place (1500 people were involved). According to the poll, approximately two third of the respondents (63%) declare to plan to continue their further education.
What education exactly do today’s schoolchildren, students, graduates want to get in the future? Every one of 10 (9%) is going to finish only a college. Every one of 5 (20%) plan to finish a higher school, approximately every one of 8 (13%) are going to became students by correspondence, and at last 6% of young people plan to attend classes at university in the evening. About their plans to do post-graduate course only 3% of young people declare, about their plans to get one more degree 10% of young people claim, and to get a degree abroad only 1% of young people intend.
According to the poll as well, a bit less than 20% of the respondents who plan to continue their education, declare that the financial crisis has impacted their education plans dramatically. And 7% of the young people say that the crisis has impacted their plans slightly.
The main causes preventing young people from getting further education:
Financial difficulties connected with a lack of money or a full lack of money for education.
Young people’s parents have been dismissed, and have now possibility to pay for education.
The payment of education has been swiftly increasing, and nobody knows how much it will be changed for the next 5 years.
Difficulties with work have also influenced the decisions not to continue educating (the threat of losing a job, dismisses of work places, etc.) Students are traditionally the most vulnerable group to dismiss at difficult times.
And finally, the disturbing tendency of reducing budgetary places is observed.
Some students of colleges and universities are also facing the above mentioned problems these days, especially those whose parents have been cut down and now do not have means to pay for their children’s education.
The market of labour for young specialists is very unstable and sensitively responds to negative tendencies in economics. In the conditions of crisis very few employers want to engage someone for work, especially young «green experts» who are inexperienced and need further learning. That is the problem as very often there is no one on the staff to teach these young specialists because the staff has been reduced, and those who are left, have to work with a vengeance. To find work for students and youth is difficult now, and the situation is constantly changing not for the best.
In January, 24th there was a round-table meeting organized by the Youth Department of the political party “united Russia”. The following problems were raised:
There is some data on decreasing the progress of students in studies in some high schools; and that is probably connected with the fact that students had to work in order to earn additionally to cover the payment for the education. The quantity of expelled first-year students has increased, which may say about weak training of the university entrances.
There is a prognosis for an essential increase in applying for social grants.
Reduction of workplaces in the field of service, where students traditionally earn after classes, will give rise to some difficulties about temporal employment.
The round-table meeting let solve the following questions:
The mechanism of transferring students from paid places to the ones of the budget is being developed. The question of the government regulations of prices on studying in higher schools is being discussed.
In 2009 the decision about the increasing the quantity of budgetary places in magistracy and post-graduate studies was taken. That will give students the chance to raise their professional level owing to the state.
The Federal Agency of Labour and Employment gave means to pay for the courses of raising the professional skills and retraining unemployed specialists.
Therefore it is absolutely clear that the crisis has touched students dramatically. According to the poll, 63% of the respondents are ready to continue their education despite the worsened financial state. However, the rest of the respondents has been touched with the crisis sharper, and simply does not have means to pay for their education.
In my opinion, the state and government ought to influence this situation as much as possible since the level of education of the people in the country is a very important factor for the further development of the state on the whole. Educated population is the basis of the state, so the government ought to create any possible ways and conditions to maintain and increase the educational level of the country. Of course, as we can see, the state and government take some measures to solve certain questions. However, they have not solved the problem radically.
PROBLEMS OF REDUCTION OF BUDGETARY EXPENSES IN THE CONDITIONS OF CRISIS
ФГОУ ВПО «Кемеровский государственный сельскохозяйственный институт», г. Кемерово
Статья посвящена проблемам сокращения и оптимизации бюджетных расходов в условиях кризиса. В ней рассказывается о возможных методах сокращения расходов: пропорциональном сокращении, выявлении приоритетных расходов.
The theme of optimum distribution of budgetary resources always will be actual. Deficiency of the state or municipal budget is its natural state. Therefore to reduce deficiency, there is one of requirements for revealing of really necessary and superfluous expenses. The given theme has got the special importance in the conditions of crisis.
Last decade for budgetary system of the country was the period of growth of budgetary system resources. However the come crisis has generated new conditions of budgetary resources distribution. In the given conditions individuals of budgetary planning haven’t to distribute additional incomes, but they have to cut down expenses. The former experience of plan-standard budgeting (the budgeting focused on result) did not work in the given conditions.
Nowadays processes of simple economy are observed. But for the decision of this problem programme-target methods of management by budgetary expenses are not necessary. Moreover analyzing the expenses which became the objects of reduction, such as investment expenses, expenses for realization of target programs, granting of subsidies to regions and municipalities on infrastructure development, it is possible to say that planning of these expenses assumes application of programme-target methods of budgetary planning. However it is impossible to agree that only the economizing are anti-recessionary measures on optimization of expenses. Application of programme-target methods of budgetary planning is useful not only for distribution of additional resources, but also in the conditions of incomes reduction of the budget.
There is a necessity of working out of the toolkit allowing to estimate validity of existing expenses of budgetary planning individuals and potential of their reduction. The concept of the budgeting focused on the result and assuming distribution of budgetary appropriations proceeding from the priority of purposes on achievement of which budgetary financing and also tools priority of their achievement are focused can be put in a basis of working out of toolkit.
It is possible to reveal and rang the priority expenses through application of one of following approaches: proportional reduction of all expenses; division of expenses on socially significant and minor; revealing of priority expenses proceeding from the readiness of the individual of budgetary planning to refuse from expenses for realization of other own purposes.
The approach assuming proportional reduction of expenses of all main managers is based on the assumption that all spheres of budgetary financing are equivalent for a society, in spite of distinctions in the structure of expenses in various fields of activity. Applying proportional reduction of budgetary expenses of subjects of budgetary planning, it is possible to formalize their priorities, to reveal the hierarchy of expenses established by the individual of budgetary planning. Subsequently these priorities can be compared among themselves and if it is necessary corrective amendments can be introduced.
Socially significant expenses can be expenses proceeding from their priority and the importance for a society estimated directly by society. The most suitable tools for this purpose are sociological interrogations of the population for the purpose of revealing the level of population satisfaction by the quality of budgetary services and proceeding from those priorities which are stated by the respondent.
Such approach, unlike proportional reduction, assumes that spheres of budgetary financing such as education, public health services, housing and communal services, culture, social support and others have inadequate value for the population and level of quality satisfaction of rendered services is not the same. Accordingly the higher is the priority sphere, the less are the expenses on the given sphere.
The third approach is focused on revealing of priorities proceeding from the readiness of the budgetary planning individuals to refuse from expenses for financing of other expenses carried to the competence of the given individual. Here it is possible to applicate the following tools: the analysis of incomes use from enterprise and other activity bringing income; readiness of the main manager to reduce the operational expenditure for mobilization of means for payment of own cofinancing share; granting of budgetary credits for concrete target directions.
The prospect of 2010-2012 years is that regions and municipalities still have to reveal and cut down the expenses having a smaller priority in comparison with other expenses. In this connection application of the budgeting focused method on result remains also actual.
1. “Finance” magazine №12, 2009.
2. “Finance and credit” magazine №1, 2009.
3. “Finance and business” magazine №11, 2009.
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FSEI HPE Kemerovo state agricultural institute Kemerovo