ФГОУ ВПО «Красноярский государственный аграрный университет» г. Красноярск
Рассматривается происхождение, история и значение термина «инновация». Применительно к понятию «педагогическая инновация» указываются его составные части, основные функции, приводятся показатели готовности преподавателя и его учебного заведения к инновации.
Innovation is a characteristic for any professional work of a person and consequently becomes a subject of studying, analysis and introduction. Innovations do not arise spontaneously; they turn up by scientific searches, an advanced pedagogical experience of individual teacher and of a whole collective. This process cannot be spontaneous, it needs in management.
The term "innovation" has Latin origin. In translation it is – updating, change, input something new, introduction of novelty. This concept has appeared for the first time in researches in a XIX-th century and meant introduction of some elements of one culture in another. In the beginning of XX-th century there appeared a new area of knowledge, innovatics – a science about innovations which studied laws of technical innovations in sphere of material production.
As applied to pedagogical process the innovation means introduction of a new in the purposes, the maintenance, methods and modes of study and education, organisation of joint activity of a teacher and a student.
The term “pedagogical innovations“ has been scientifically proved and entered in pedagogy in the eighties of the XX-th centuries.
Pedagogical innovation – is an innovation in pedagogical activity, changes in the maintenance and technology of training and education, having for an object increase of their efficiency.
Innovative process consists in formation and development of subject-matter and the organisation of the new. As a whole by the term innovative process it is meant complex activity on creation, development, use and propagation of novelty.
The innovation is the purposeful change bringing in inhabitancy new stable elements, causing transition of a system from one state to another.
Development of creative abilities of a teacher and students.
Innovative education builds educational process as movement from social and cultural knowledge and abilities of the trade to technological, giving to a student understanding of ways and methods of a decision of his professional problems, and from them to methodological, allowing to trace dynamics of his professional work quality.
The innovative thinking is formed by student if, first, he is actively motivated in training, realizes requirements of individual self-control for achievement of the vital purposes; secondly, if educational process reflects full life cycle of professional work with its innovations and contradictions.
Thus, leading functions of innovative training are-:
Democratisation of their joint activity and dialogue;
A humanisation of teaching and educational process;
Orientation to creative teaching, the active doctrine and the initiative of the student in his formation as future professional;
Modernisation of means, methods, technologies and material resources of education, promoting formation of innovative thinking of the future professional.
Innovative activity - regular development and introduction by teacher pedagogical innovations for the purpose of creation of conditions for evolution of the student’s personality on the basis of creation innovative educational environment.
Character of innovative activity of the teacher depends not only on conditions existing in concrete educational institution, but also from level of its readiness for this activity.
Readiness for innovative activity is a set of qualities of a teacher defining its orientation on development of his pedagogical activity and activity of all collective educational establishment, and also its abilities to reveal actual learner’s problems, to find and realise effective ways of their resolving.
Components of readiness of a teacher to innovative activity:
Presence of motive;
A complex of knowledge of modern requirements to educational results, innovative models and educational technologies;
Set of knowledge and ways of the decision of problems of this activity, i.e. competence in the field of pedagogical innovation.
Motives for inclusion in innovative activity can be:
Realization of own creative potential and self-development.
Absence of motivation testifies to unavailability of the teacher to innovative activity.
The material motive or motive of work necessity corresponds to weak readiness for innovative activity. High level readiness corresponds to motivational structure in which the leading part is played values of self-realization and self-development.
Without comprehension of participation in innovative activity as personal value it is impossible to be of high readiness for this activity.
The second component of readiness – a complex of knowledge of modern requirements to results of education, innovative models and educational technologies.
New teaching technologies demand from a teacher pedagogical skill. There is a list of pedagogical knowledge and skills in a literature which are necessary for modern teacher:
Ability to diagnose the training and education purposes;
Deep, systematic knowledge of the discipline and its scientific bases;
Ability to restructure a teaching material from primitive presentation one by one lessons to logic structure according to a problem of the whole theme;
To know how to model (in its purposes, the maintenance, forms, methods and tutorials) professional activity of the future specialist in educational process;
Free working knowledge of active training methods;
Ability to provide a favourable psychological climate and teacher - student cooperation.
The next component of readiness of a teacher to innovation is a competence in the field of pedagogical innovations. A teacher well prepared for innovative activity in this aspect:
grasps a complex of concepts of pedagogical innovations;
understands a place and a role of innovative activity in educational institution, its communication with teaching and educational activity;
is able to study experience of teachers-innovators;
is able to analyze critically pedagogical systems, educational programs, technologies and didactic tutorials;
The teacher is able:
to develop innovative offers for improvement in educational process;
To put the purposes of experimental work and to plan it;
To analyze and estimate himself as a subject of innovative process.
Readiness for innovative activity in modern conditions – the major quality of a professional teacher without which it is impossible to reach high level of skill.
The important condition of readiness of a teacher to innovative activity is moral and psychological climate in collective.
The head of any educational institution is obliged to carry out all reforms strictly on a legal basis. The rule of law – the important and necessary tool of administrative activity. Certainly, any norm limits freedom. But the freedom of action of modern head assumes, first of all, its high legal culture. Without a normative regulation normal work is impossible. A support on the right and morals in educational institution, applying innovations is one of the major conditions of ensuring safety of students and teachers.
Pedagogical innovations should promote the fullest realisation of the right to education, the rights of everyone to dispose freely by own abilities to work, to choose a kind of activity, a trade, other rights and freedom defined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
Such administrative practice is an innovation itself.