BIOLOGICAL INSECTICIDES AS AN ELEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
FSEI HPE Novosibirsk State Agrarian University Novosibirsk
БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ИНСЕКТИЦИДЫ КАК ЭЛЕМЕНТ ОХРАНЫ ОКРУЖАЮЩЕЙ СРЕДЫ
ФГОУ ВПО «Новосибирский государственный аграрный
университет» г. Новосибирск
Рассмотрено использование биологических препаратов на основе природных энтомопатогенных микроорганизмов как альтернативы синтетическим инсектицидам для защиты растений от фитофагов. Показаны преимущества биологических инсектицидов по сравнению с химическими в отношении охраны окружающей среды.
It is well known that all crops are damaged by harmful insects and this fact requires plant protection against these phytophages. As a rule, synthetic insecticides are applied for this purpose. However, severe climatic conditions in Siberia cause particular vulnerability of plants to stress; therefore, massive application of chemical pesticides for plant protection is undesirable. In addition, synthetic insecticides kill not only pests but also beneficial insects such as entomophages and pollinators. Chemicals are accumulated in soil, water and air causing the environmental pollution. Accumulation of synthetic insecticides in crop fruits is especially dangerous to human health. Biological insecticides are indispensable alternative to chemical pesticides. Biological formulations are based on natural entomopathogenic microorganisms with specific ability to control harmful insects. Any of entomopathogens including baculovirus, bacterium or fungus is a necessary part of environment. Periodically, these microorganisms cause sharp epizootics controlling the number of harmful phytophagous insects in nature, especially in forestry.
The first attempt to control a pest with a fungal agent was carried out by I. I. Mechnikov in Russia in 1888, when the fungus now known as Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.( Sor.) was mass produced and sprayed in the field for control of the beet weevil. This is recognized all over the world as the very beginning of microbial pest control . Later, in the former USSR Beauveria bassiana-based mycoinsecticide for control of Colorado beetle and codling moth was developed in 1965. However, the most common biological pesticides for microbial control of phytophages are bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis-based formulations. Historically, the first bacterial insecticide in Russia was developed by Siberian researcher E. V. Talalaev . He isolated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. dendrolimus (sotto) from larvae of a serious forest pest - the Siberian silkworm Dendrolimus superans sibiricus - during epizootics in Eastern Siberia. This Bt subspecies provided the basis of the formulation Dendrobacillin® for insect control. Initially, Dendrobacillin® was used for plantprotection against pest insect in forestry. It was warranted because forest occupied the great area of Siberia and the maintenance of biodiversity of this biocenosis by elimination of chemicals was very important. Later, the same formulation was used for lepidopteran insect control on agricultural crops as well. In the second half of 20th century, some research groups were organized in Eastern and Western Siberia (Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk and Novosibirsk) for research and development of biopesticides based on entomopathogenic microorganisms. Nowadays, Novosibirsk is a center of biocontrol research in Siberia, including research teams at State Agrarian University, some Institutes of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, and State Scientific Center of Virology and Biotechnology. The main directions of research are as follows: isolation and identification of potential biocontrol agents; mechanism of interaction of biocontrol agent with its target organism; application technology of ecologically safe formulations; enhancement of biocontrol efficacy.
It should be noted also that in 1960s the first Russian factory (now known as SibBiopharm) producing biological insecticides based on the most common biocontrol agent Bt was built near Novosibirsk. This fact accelerated the research on the application and improvement of the biological insecticides. Together with Bt-formulations, preparations based on entomopathogenic viruses were considered as attractive ecologically safe alternatives to chemical insecticides. Several strains of baculoviruses were isolated by Siberian researchers from the serious forest pests, such as D. superans sibiricus, Neodiprion sertifer and Aporia crataegi . Again, it was a basis for development of plant protection technology including viral entomopathogenic formulations. For example, a serious polyphagous pest of vegetable and many other crops – the beet webworm Pyrausta sticticalis, was shown to be suppressed by specific granulosis virus (GV) and nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV). The GV appeared to be more virulent to larvae of beet webworm than NPV, therefore, viral preparation was developed using the GV.
Long-term application of microbial insecticides discovered its advantages for environment such as the conservation of beneficial insects, absence of chemicals in soil and water, residues in fresh fruits. Therefore, we can consider the biological insecticides as an element of environmental protection.
Lord, J.C. From Metchnikoff to Monsanto and beyond: the path microbial control/J.C. Lord// J.Invertebr.Pathol. – 2005. – V.89. – P. 19-29.
Shternshis, M.V. Ecologically safe control of insect pest: the past, the present and the future/ M.V.Shternshis// Emerging concepts in plant health management (Eds. R.Lartey & A.Caesar). – Research Signpost, 2004. – P. 187-212.
УДК 636 (571.17)
TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF CATTLE-BREEDING BRANCH IN THE KEMEROVO REGION