Использование инновационных технологий в образовании


Размер2,29 Mb.
1   ...   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   ...   36


Miroshina T.A.

FSEI HPE Kemerovo state agricultural institute Kemerovo


Мирошина Т.А.

ФГОУ ВПО «Кемеровский государственный сельскохозяйственный институт», г. Кемерово
В статье сформулировано понятие «аудирование», приводятся основные виды упражнений для обучения студентов аудированию и объясняются приемы контроля. При формировании навыков аудирования важен подбор текстов. Аудитивный материал должен быть доступным студентам по форме и содержанию, быть интересным.

The term «auding» means the process of hearing, listening to, recognizing and interpreting spoken language. Auding as a kind of communicative activity can be considered in two aspects: 1) as a component of speech dialogue; 2) as rather independent kind of communications when the stream of the speech information is directed to one party, for example at listening of the story, the sounded filmstrip, cinema, a video film.

Auding as a component of bilateral speech information interchange is easier than its variant of unilateral reception of the information from various sources of reproduction of a sound recording. The understanding of the information at bilateral dialogue is facilitated by presence of many external factors such as a look, a facial expression and other kinds of an emotional condition of speaker and his or her relation to stated and received data.

One of the factors facilitating perception of speech is that auding during bilateral speech dialogue is carried out alternately with speaking. In this connection loading considerably decreases for acoustic analyzers and auding process is less tiresome. Besides in case of any ambiguities in perception of the maintenance of the statement the interlocutor always has possibility in this or that form to request the additional information that is very important. These factors are absent at reproduction of the speech which have been written down by technical means.

Two principal kinds of exercises for training to auding are distinguished: practice-communicative (for overcoming of language difficulties of auding) and communicatively-informative (for training to semantic perception of speech). The basic characteristic of practice-communicative exercises is that the statement maintenance in them is set in advance. The attention of students concentrates mainly on the language phenomena. Communicatively-informative exercises assume operating by the mastered language material in the speech situation simulating conditions of natural dialogue. The named two kinds of exercises are closely interconnected.

Text selection is very important aspect in study on formation of auding skills. Text quality is one of the factors predetermining success of this work. The main indicator of quality of the text is its context, character of the information presented in it. First of all, such text should contain ­new information to students and it should be interesting.

It is known that in the process of auding the context plays the same important role as physical parameters of speech. It is clear that texts should be constructed on the studied lexical and grammatical material and they should contain only such quantity of the new words which meanings can be defined without effort as a result of likelihood forecasting at the set grade level. If the text contains many unknown words they should be explained before listening. The auditive material should be accessible to students both under the form and under the maintenance. Preparing the text for auding, it is necessary to consider that the duration of the text influences character of its perception. Usually listening of texts without a visual support should not exceed three minutes and with a visual support – five minutes.

At training to perception of the semantic maintenance of the speech message also as well as at training to perception of its language registration, the big role is played by a correct choice of control methods and ways of maintenance of self-control which in the process of mastering auding skills are gradually replaced with internal self-control of students.

Translation can serve as one of control devices of understanding spoken language in the process of auding. At the initial stage of training it will be enough to give students the control information selected by means of translation of the checked phenomenon.

Any educational operations from a choice of the answer before retelling or situation reproduction can be control methods. The greatest quantity of the information can be selected by means of the control methods representing various speaking operations (answers to questions under the heard text, the comment, etc.). Besides realization of these methods, in essence, is simultaneous training of speaking.

It is necessary to consider that the control at training to any kind of activity including auding should occupy minimum time in comparison with fulfilling of this or that educational action.

The understanding of heard text can be checked up in the different ways:

1) to set three-four questions; 2) to ask to retell the text; 3) to suggest to translate last paragraph into Russian; 4) to carry out random inspection in a magnetic recording if work is spent in a language laboratory, etc.

It is necessary to remember about psychological principle of directions. Directions will help to transform sensation into purposeful supervision, in perception, in process of selection of the facts, sorting and their estimations. The perception of any educational information is necessarily connected with experience of students, with their knowledge and their outlook. The proceeding of educational process and mastering of a new material will depend substantially on the condition of students, their interests and readiness for independent work. ­That is why before the beginning of film demonstration or listening of a sound recording it is necessary for teacher to formulate the viewing purpose clearly and precisely­. Perception of a film is a difficult process demanding simultaneous pressure of both acoustical and visual analyzers. Psychologists say that if these analyzers work simultaneously over one problem, the effect is provided.

УДК 378.14:811

Каталог: upload -> nauch trud
upload -> Одобрено на заседании каф. Философии и гуманитарных дисциплин Пушкина Н. М
upload -> Сборник тезисов докладов и методических материалов круглого стола психологов (11-12 ноября 2015 года) Екатеринбург 2015
upload -> Название кафедры
upload -> Мультикультурное образование в сша, канаде и австралии
upload -> Департамент образования и молодежной политики
nauch trud -> Актуальные проблемы современного образования
nauch trud -> Редакционная коллегия
nauch trud -> Актуальные проблемы современного образования
nauch trud -> Актуальные проблемы современного образования

Поделитесь с Вашими друзьями:
1   ...   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   ...   36

База данных защищена авторским правом ©psihdocs.ru 2023
обратиться к администрации

    Главная страница